In a society where women’s inequality remains deeply rooted gender norms and unequal gender power relations dictate the role of men and women. In Ethiopia, women’s access to rural transport is limited. This qualitative research aimed to explore the gender differences in access to rural transport and its implication for agricultural performance. Focus group discussions, in-depth interviews and observations were used to collect data. By using purposive and snowball sampling, a total of 14 in-depth interview, 12 key informant interview and 96 focus group discussion participants were selected. The qualitative data was collected using semistructured and open-ended interview protocols and analyzed using qualitative thematic content analysis. According to the results of women’s focus groups, men control household’s transport means (donkey, horse, and mule). Women typically only control such resources if they are female headed household. These activities are done through head-loading or back-loading. To improve rural women’s access to transport infrastructures and hence their agricultural productivity, greater consideration needs to be given to interventions in intermediate means of transport, and other timeand loadreducing measures such energy saving cooking equipments and rural child care centers.