This paper analyzed agricultural market access and farming system by smallholder farmers that have influence in poverty reduction taking periodic markets as a case study using data from three wards of Msalato, Makutupora and Hombolo in Dodoma city. A multivariate analysis examined agricultural market accessibility in smallholder farmers households and multiple response scoring method was used in assessing the farming system in smallholder farmers that have influence in poverty reduction. The study fails to accept the null hypothesis because results show a perfect relationship between agricultural marketing accessibility and farming system in smallholder farmers in the study area. The results shows that, the combination of both infrastructure, production and marketing mix found to be significant at p<0.01. The data furthemore shows that infrastructure criteria, marketing mix and a combination of both infrastructure, production and marketing mix had a negative relationship with access to periodic market, while production have a positive relationship. This implies that households in the study areas will not be able to access periodic market without good infrastructures and marketing mix for the products regardless how much they have produced in that season.