Abstract

The journey of Muslim civilization started from Arabian Peninsula during the 7th century AD. After a long age of inertia, an impetus o f regeneration thrived by which all kinds of racial and ethnic discrimination eliminated from Arab society. The founder of Islam prophet Muhammed disseminated the gospels of egalitarianism by counter ing century-old evil social order, challenged the dogma of violence, fostered education for women and slaves. Through the victory of Muslims over Mecca in 630 AD, the process of infant Islamic state began its shaping. Immediately, after the death of Muhammed his four legitimate heirs -Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddique, Hazrat Uthman Gani, Hazrat Umar Faruq, Hazrat Ali is popularly known as the ‘Rushidun Caliphate’ by Sunni Islamic theology, continued the administration quietly based on prophetic doctrine. In the course of time, circumstances began to be altered with the hand of Umayyads and Abbasid Caliphate; few noticeable changes occurred, which turned the holy principles once abided by the four great Caliphs and Prophet himself. The Gradual expansion of Muslim civilization from one region to other region diverted the ideology of Muslims and on the eve of 10th, and 11th century AD, we have seen the rise of Sultanate, even on the other hand, birth of tribal identity among Muslims largely related to central Asia. Such types of factors dealt with the decay of the republican philosophy of Islam, simultaneously imparted a concept of despotism based on the monarchical approach and power of the sword.

How to Cite
UL HOSSAIN, Imon. Transformation of Muslim Civilization from Devoted Believer to Despotic: A Study of Islamic History after Prophet Muhammed’s Death. Global Journal of Human-Social Science Research, [S.l.], june 2020. ISSN 2249-460X. Available at: <https://socialscienceresearch.org/index.php/GJHSS/article/view/3212>. Date accessed: 22 oct. 2020.